Influenza Vaccines

The first Russian influenza vaccine appeared in the end of 1930s. It was a live attenuated influenza vaccine, produced by Anatoly Smorodintsev. Later, live cold adapted and reassortant vaccines became available. In the 1970s a technology for fabricating whole–cell and split inactivated vaccines was developed. In the beginning of the 1990s polymer–subunit vaccine was introduced. Today, most vaccines strains are genetically engineered, i.e. «constructed» out of 8 RNA plasmids that encode influenza genome.

Domestic vaccines are currently represented by Grippol, a polymer–subunit influenza vaccine with immune modulating Polyoxidonium, and Ultriks. There are several foreign inactivated split and subunit vaccines approved for use in Russia: Vaxigripe (France), Begrivac (Germany), Fluarix (Germany and Belgium), which all are split vaccines; subunit vaccines Influvac (Netherlands) and Agrippal (Italy), and virosomal subunit influenza vaccine Inflexal V (Switzerland).

In Russia, free mass vaccinations are conducted according to the National Calendar of Prophylactic Immunizations, established by the Ministry of Health. The Calendar defines vaccination schedule by type of disease, age groups, and occupation/activity. Influenza vaccination is done annually for children over 6 months, adults over 60, 1–11 grade school students, college and university students, healthcare, transport and social workers.

List of influenza vaccines authorized and currently used in Russia

Type Name Country of

Subunit Inactivated Vaccine

Grippol plus






Agrippal S1


Virosomal Subunit Inactivated Vaccine

Inflexal V


Split Inactivated Vaccine


Fluarix Germany
Begrivac Germany
Fluvaxin China